“And the dragon was enraged against the woman; and he went to make war upon the remnant of her seed who keep the Commandments of Elohim and have the testimony of Y’shua.”
Revelation 12:17 - A.E.N.T.
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Netzarim History Part One
“Here is the patience of the Set Apart believers who keep the commandments of Elohim, and the faith of Yeshua.”
Revelation 14:12, AENT

Continued from Netzarim History Page,

Recalling the earlier reference that Gentiles began calling the Netzarim "Kristianay" (Christians) in Antioch, the practice became widespread in the Gentile world and continues to this day as Netzarim are still referred to as “primitive Christians”, “early Christians” and the “early Church”. It should be noted at the outset that where the all-encompassing word "Christian" is used in the foregoing references it is oftentimes  including those that were Netzarim or that followed the Netzarim halacha (way to walk) as much as they were able.  

You will see that the persecution of "Christians" was because they observed the seventh day Shabbat, the Moedim Feasts of YHWH, and kept the Mitzwot (Commandments) of YHWH as do the Netzarim to this day. This history also includes those groups haSatan has used throughout the centuries to destroy the Talmidim (disciples) Y’shua. All events listed are critical to our understanding.

Let’s start out by examining what the first congregations (Christians refer to as “churches”) looked like.

Philo, (20 BCE - 50 CE) a first century historian of Alexandria Egypt, reports in his work entitled: ‘On the life of Moses’ he questions: "What man is there who does not honor that sacred seventh day, granting in consequence, a relief and relaxation from labor, for himself and for all those who are near to him and that not to free men only, but also to slaves and even to beasts of burden... Everything is at liberty and in safety on that day and enjoys as it were, perfect freedom in obedience to a universal proclamation."

The first century historian, Flavius Josephus (37 CE – 100 CE), gives us great insight as to what took place on the Sabbath, not only in Jerusalem, but in all of the Roman empire. In his work entitled: "Flavius Josephus against Apion" he states : " The multitude of mankind itself have had a great inclination of a long time, to follow our religious observances, for there is not any city of the Grecians nor of the Barbarians, nor any nation whatsoever wither our custom of resting on the seventh day hath not come."

The people of YHWH have a “Mark”, a special sign. “...Nevertheless, you must keep My [Shabbats] for this is a sign between me and you throughout the ages, that you may know that I YHWH have consecrated you. You shall keep the Shabbat, for it is Kadosh (sanctified) for you...” Exodus 31:12-14

Revelation 7:2-3

“And I saw another messenger...and he had the seal of the living Elohim; and he cried out... ‘Hurt not the earth, nor the sea, nor the trees, until we have sealed the servants of our Elohim upon their foreheads’.”

“It is well to remind the Presbyterians, Baptists, Methodists, and all other Christians, that the Bible does not support them anywhere in their observance of Sunday. Sunday is an institution of the Roman Catholic Church, and those who observe the day observe a commandment of the Catholic Church.” Priest Brady, in an address, reported in the Elizabeth, NJ ‘News’ on March 18, 1903. (From This Rock - the definitive magazine of Catholic apologetics and evangelization)

Luke 4:16

Speaking of Yeshua, “... And he entered into the assembly as he was accustomed on the day of the Shabbat...”

Matt 26:17-19

Yeshua observes Pesach (means “Protect”, Passover) with his Shlichim (Apostles).

John 7:10-14

Yeshua goes up to Jerusalem for the Feast of Chag haMatzot (Unleavened Bread). On the last day of Chag haMatzot (the first day and the seventh days are Shabbatot (Sabbaths) - not to be confused with the weekly Shabbat) Yeshua gets up to teach in verses 37 & 38

Acts 2:1

The Shlichim (Apostles) are gathered together for the Feast of Shavuot (Pentecost) when the Ruach haKodesh (Set Apart Ancient Spirit) comes upon them. Note that they were gathered together for the feast, they were not hiding out in fear of the religious leaders as is taught by many misguided Christian teachers. The Talmidim had already seen the risen Mashiyach seven weeks previous (counting of the Omer to Shavuot) and they have been emboldened since that time.

“These are my feasts...the feasts of YHWH, Kadosh (set apart) convocations”. (Lev. 23:2-4) “...a statute forever (vs 14, 21, 31, 41)”.

Acts 18:4

Rav Shaul (Paul) is in the Kenesset (Hebrew; translated Synagogue in Greek) on each Shabbat teaching. Kenesset means “great assembly” or “congregation”.

Acts 20:6

They sailed after the Feast of Chag haMatzot. This correlates with the Shavuot following in Acts 20:16

Acts 20:16

Paul bypasses Asia as he is in a hurry to get to Jerusalem for the Feast of Shavuot (Pentecost). This was approximately 25 - 30 years after the death and resurrection of Yeshua haMashiyach and the baptism of the Ruach haKodesh in Acts 2:1. The Ruach writes Torah upon the heart. If these things were done away with, why are the Shlichim still observing them?

Acts 27:9

Sailing was difficult because it was “After the fast” referring to Yom Kippur (Shabbat - Day of Atonement - it is a day of fasting and prayer). This is preceded by Yom T’ruah (Feast of Trumpets) and followed by Sukkot (Tabernacles).  When we refer to “the fast” it is usually indicative of the (3) fall Feasts of YHWH. Make a note. The spring feasts have been fulfilled - Pesach; Chag haMatzot; haBikkurim (First Fruits); and Shavuot.

Yom T’ruah; Yom Kippur; and Sukkot (Tabernacles) have yet to be fulfilled by Mashiyach. Here is a remez for those who have understanding. Yom T’ruah coincides with 1 Corinthians 15:52, “at the last trump...”. Revelation 19:7-9 coincides with Yom Kippur, “for the marriage supper of the Lamb has come...” And yes, Sukkot coincides with Revelation 20:6 as we await our permanent home in Revelation 22.

For more on this see the page, “Matthew 5:17-19” on this web site.

1 Corinthians 5:7-8

“Let us celebrate the festival...” Speaking of Chag haMatzot and how to observe it properly (cleaning out the leaven in our hearts). Rav Shaul directly ties the Feasts to Yeshua in verse 7, “...For our Passover is the Mashiyach, who was slain for us”.

The Gospels and Acts make it equally clear that Mashiyach, his Shlichim and Talmidim kept the seventh day weekly Shabbat that was established before the Torah was given to Moshe (Mark 6:2, Luke 4:16, 31-32; 13:10; Acts 13:14-44; 18:4). Did Rav Shaul really abandon the Shabbat as many Christian denominations teach? That is contrary to what Acts 17:1-3 teaches,2 And Paul, as was his custom, went in to them, and during three Shabbatot he spoke with them from the scriptures.”

What scriptures did Rav Shaul teach from? There was no “New Testament” at that time. The writings of the Netzarim had not even been collected together at this time. In fact, they hadn’t all been written yet. Rav Shaul taught from the Torah and the Prophets that Christianity claims was nailed to the torture stake. Read Acts 24:14; 25:8. “As a result, Torah is Set Apart; and the Commandment is Set Apart, and righteous, and good.” Romans 7:12. “For I rejoice in the Torah of Elohim, in the inner man.” Romans 7:22. In verse 25, “...Now, therefore, in my conscience, I am a servant of the Torah of Elohim...” Paul states in his letter to Timothy, “because from your childhood, you were taught the Set Apart books which can make you wise to life by faith in Y’shua Mashiyach. All Scripture that was written by the Spirit is profitable for instruction and for decisive refutation, and for correction, and for deep extensive learning in righteousness...” 2 Tim. 3:15-16

What scripture does Rav Shaul keep talking about? They didn’t check Rav Shaul’s teaching against Matthew, Acts, 1 Timothy, Jude, or The Revelation because there was no New Testament. Even the Bereans checked Rav Shaul and Silas against the scriptures to see if they were teaching the truth from Torah and the Prophets in Acts 17:10-11.

Hebrews 4:9-10

For there remains a Shabbat for the people of Elohim. For he who had entered into his rest has also rested from his works as Elohim did from his. Let us, therefore, strive to enter into that rest; or else we fall short, after the way of those who did not believe. For the Word of Elohim is living and all-efficient and sharper than a two edged sword.”

We can confidently state that the Shlichim and Talmidim not only talked the talk, they walked the walk. Their actions clearly matched up with the words they spoke. Now, these Netzarim went out into the world and preached the Good News. While these Netzarim preached they walked the walk letting their light shine before men. Let’s see what resulted from their halacha and what resulted from those who came up with false doctrines and new commandments from the twisted imaginations of men.

132 CE  - Demarcation - The Creation of the All Gentile Christian “Church”

Second Jewish rebellion under Bar Kokhba; second destruction of Jerusalem by Romans in 134; almost entire Jewish population of Palestine died or fled.

Up until the time of the Bar Kokhba revolt, Netzarim and those Gentiles calling themselves "Kristiany" were of the circumsion - they kept the Mitzwot of YHWH (or what is referred to as the Mosaic Law) and had the testimony of Yeshua. The Beit Dien (governing council or Judges) were Jewish Netzarim.

After the Bar Kokhba revolt the remaining Jewish inhabitants were exiled and forbidden to enter Yerushalayim. Yerushalayim is renamed Aelia Capitolina and a temple to Jupiter Capitolina was erected on the temple mount. Jews and Jewish believers were forbidden to enter the city. Judaea became the Syrian province of "Palestine" or "Land of the Philistines". Marcus becomes the first "Gentile Bishop" of Yerushalayim (Aelia Capitolina) according to Eusebius. This is approximately 100 years after the execution of Yeshua.

Under Marcus' direction "The most considerable part of the congregation renounced the 'Mosaic law', the practice of which they had preserved above a century [after the execution of Yeshua]."  Those who renounced the "Mosaic law" were free to live in Yerushalayim and to come and go as they pleased. "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Edward Gibons"

This solidified the all Gentile Christian Church which stripped away all things Hebrew and changed the "faith once delivered to the Set-Apart believers" into the Church of "the mystery of iniquity" (Lawlessness - Torahlessness).

140 CE

Marcion's canon of authentic scripture consisted of a set of writings he collected together in about 140 AD which seemed to support his cause and, more importantly, he rejected those which did not. There was little consensus in those days as to what constituted scripture. Marcion's canon of authentic scripture excluded anything referring to Torah (Law) or YHWH, who Marcion saw as an inferior g-d. This canon had no books from the Tanakh (old testament and expunged everything which Marcion felt had been added by ' Judaisers' in the Ketuviim Netzarim (new testament).

Marcion's teachings departed from traditional Christianity, up to that point in history, in a number of ways. Most dramatically Marcion rejected the idea that the Tanakh G-d and the Ketuviim Netzarim G-d were the same being. The traditional Church had considered the Tanakh to be sacred and assumed that Christianity was a fulfillment, or continuation, of Judaism. Marcion's rejection of that idea affected many different doctrines and beliefs.

Once Marcion had rewritten the Christian scriptures, he could make his case. "By rewriting scripture, he presented a powerful case." Fox, Pagans and Christians, at 332.

Marcion's theology was a tremendous departure from that of the contemporary Christian churches in which he had grown up in. Key to his theology was the notion that there were actually two "G-ds." One of these "G-ds" was the G-d of the Tanakh. He was a completely different, lesser, entity than the G-d of the Ketuviim Netzarim. According to Marcion, Y'shua was the product of the New G-d. This G-d was not YHWH, but the "unknown G-d" referred to by Paul in Acts in his speech in Athens. Marcion coined the terms, “Old Testament” and “New Testament” that Christianity uses to this day. We use the correct names of Tanakh (OT) and Ketuviim Netzarim (NT).

Ironically, some of Marcion's anti-Jew, anti-Torah, and anti-Netzari teachings found their way into mainstream Christianity and are still held as basic Christian doctrine today.

154 CE

Anicetus introduces the Pagan Easter festival [Ishtar] into the Roman Church. He is opposed by Polycarp disciple of John. Polycarp heads the church in the east at Smyrna and speaks for all Quartodecimans. Notice that this is a subtle “introduction”. It was gradually incorporated into the Roman religion until 325 CE when it was made an official “Holy Day” at the Council of Nicea. Outside the Roman Church, believers still observed Pesach rather than the pagan Ishtar festival.

Justin Martyr writes his First Apology to the Emperor of Rome on behalf of the Church of Rome. Martyr says that Christ was the Great Angel of the OT who gave the Law to Moses. On behalf of the Church at Rome, Martyr wrote (Dial. LXXX) that if they came across people who said they were Christians and that when they died they would go to heaven, not to believe them because they were not Christians. This was the test of a true Christian. It was a shibboleth (any distinguishing practice which is indicative of one's social or regional origin) in the church. People who said that when they died they went to heaven were Gnostic impostors according to Martyr.

156 CE

Two years after the introduction and mixing of the pagan festival of Ishtar with the Pesach, Polycarp bishop of Smyrna is executed on a torture stake for defending the Pesach (Passover) Feast as commanded in the Tanakh.

180 CE            

Theophilus of Antioch makes the first mention of a trias later incorrectly translated into English as Trinity, and the insipient beginnings of the Binitarian doctrine emerges for the first time in the history of the church.

200 CE

Tertullian in 200 AD introduces the doctrine of the trinity. Until then no one had heard of the trinity doctrine. The trinity was not taught by the Apostles nor was it taught by Yeshua haMashiyach. Another subtle introduction by haSatan that would, over time and repeated exposure, become a staple of the false doctrines taught by apostate Christianity. Bear in mind that all of Christianity is not apostate, but the vast majority of Christianity today is. This becomes more evident as we move through this history lesson.

Seventh day Sabbath observance is widespread & appears to have been opposed from Rome. It was kept in Egypt as the Oxyrhynchus Papyrus (c. 200-250 CE) shows.

Egypt (Oxyrhynchus Papyrus) (200-250 A.D.)
"Except ye make the sabbath a real sabbath (sabbatize the Sabbath," Greek), ye shall not see the Father." "The oxyrhynchus Papyri," pt,1, p.3, Logion 2, verso 4-11 (London Offices of the Egypt Exploration Fund, 1898).

Origen also enjoined Sabbath-keeping.

Similarly the Constitution of the Kadosh Apostles (Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 7, p. 413; c. 3rd century) states: "Thou shalt observe the Sabbath, on account of Him who ceased from His work of creation, but ceased not from His work of providence: it is a rest for meditation of the law, not for idleness of the hands."

Vicious persecutions of Coptic Christians in Egypt with thousands martyred.

Tertullian says the British Church (do not confuse with the Church of England) has been long established at this time.

"The Gentile Christians observed also the Sabbath," Gieseler's "Church History," Vol.1, ch. 2, par. 30, 93. This is an interesting phrase, “Gentile Christians”.

220 CE

The problems of Modalism emerge in the discussions between the popes in Rome and Alexandria. A distinction is attempted in the Trias of The Father, Messiah and the Ruach haKodesh. Here the influence of the Modalism of Attis is seen in the Christian church from Rome.

The Sabbath in India

India (Buddhist Controversy)
The Kushan Dynasty of North India called a famous council of Buddhist priests at Vaisalia to bring uniformity among the Buddhist monks on the observance of their weekly Sabbath. Some had been so impressed by the writings of the Old Testament that they had begun to keep [kadosh] the Sabbath. Lloyd, "The Creed of Half Japan," p. 23.

225 CE

Palestine to India (Church of the East)
As early as A.D. 225 there existed large bishoprics or conferences of the Church of the East (Sabbath-keeping) stretching from Palestine to India. Mingana, "Early Spread of Christianity." Vol.10, p. 460. This was actually the strong influence and spread of the Netzarim in the East as Hellenism and gnosticism spread to the West.

243 CE

De Pascha Computus, a calendar of feasts produced in 243, gives March 28 as the date of the nativity. Roll p.81f

245 CE

The theologian Origen of Alexandria stated that, "only sinners (like Pharaoh and Herod)" celebrated their birthdays. Origen, "Levit., Hom. VIII"; Migne P.G., XII, 495.

300 CE

What we are seeing is a perpetuation of paganism which began in the era of Constantine, around 300 AD. It's true that Constantine had a so-called conversion to Christianity but that didn't occur until the day of his death (he was baptized on his deathbed) ... until then, Christians who refused to bow down to Constantine's worship of Ba'al (which translates to The Lord in English) were labeled Judaisers. My Note: Actually, Constantine worshipped the Roman Version of Ba’al, Sol Invictus or Solis Invictus.

In 303 CE

Christian writer Arnobius ridiculed the idea of celebrating the birthdays of gods, which suggests that Christmas was not yet a feast at this time. "Christmas", The Catholic Encyclopedia, 1913.

The Sabbath in Spain

305 CE

From canon 26 of the Council of Elvira (c. 305), the church in Spain had kept the Sabbath. Rome had introduced the practice of fasting on the Sabbath to make Sabbath-keeping repugnant. Pope Sylvester (314-335) was the first to order the churches to fast on the Sabbath, and Pope Innocent (402-417) made it a binding law in the churches that obeyed him.

Innocentius did ordain the Sabbath or Saturday to be always fasted on (Peter Heylyn, History of the Sabbath, Part 2, Ch. 2, London, 1636, p. 44).

314 CE

Edict of Toleration of Milan, the Emperor Constantine sought to use Christianity for political purposes and initially supported the Roman faction, which came to adopt the doctrines of Athanasius and, later, that of the Cappadocians. The doctrinal position of the church had become blurred by Gnostic factions, influenced by the mystery cults. Constantine supported the Athanasian faction on the mistaken assumption that, because it was dominant in Rome, it was the major sect, but the deposition of Arius in the packed Synod of Alexandria led ultimately to war with his co-Emperor, Licinius, and the troubles of 322-323 CE.

Pope Sylvester (314-335) was the first to order the churches to fast on the Sabbath.

Rome attempts to counteract Sabbath keeping.

318 CE

Conference of the Deposyni: In 318 Constantine had ordered the conference between the bishop of Rome and the desposyni, the bishops were alledgedly of the family of Y'shua haMashiyach.


The desposyni* (meaning literally in Greek "Belonging to the Lord" as they were blood relatives of Y'shua) asked Sylvester, who now had Roman patronage, to revoke his confirmation of the authority of the Greek Christian bishops at Jerusalem, in Antioch, in Ephesus, and in Alexandria, and to name desposynos bishops in their stead. In addition, they asked that the practice of sending cash to Jerusalem as the mother church be resumed. This practice is easily recognizable as the tithe of the tithe system, which had been in force in the church until Emperor Hadrian’s ban in 135 CE. These blood relatives of Mashiyach demanded the reintroduction of the Law, which included the Sabbath and the Kadosh Day system of Feasts and New Moons of the Bible. Sylvester dismissed their claims and said that from now on, the mother church was in Rome and he insisted they accept the Greek bishops to lead them.

This was the last known dialogue with the Torah-keeping church in the East led by the disciples who were descended from blood relatives of Mashiyach.

The bishop, or pope, (all bishops of major sees were called pope initially when the term was introduced from the cults) then with Roman contrivance, ordered that they be exterminated and this campaign of extermination was undertaken against Mashiyach's immediate family from 318 onwards.

* The Desposyni is a term that, according to Sextus Julius Africanus, a writer of the early third century, refers to alleged” blood relatives of Jesus who were then alive.” My note: “Jesus”, a 16th Century word, used within original author’s quotation.

According to the Gospel according to the Hebrews, some of these held, even at that relatively late stage, positions of special honor in the Early Christian Church. (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon).

321 CE

The text of Constantine’s “Sunday Law”, perhaps the first “Blue Law”:

"On the venerable day of the Sun let the magistrates and people residing in cities rest, and let all workshops be closed. In the country however persons engaged in agriculture may freely and lawfully continue their pursuits because it often happens that another day is not suitable for gain-sowing or vine planting; lest by neglecting the proper moment for such operations the bounty of heaven should be lost. (Given the 7th day of March, Crispus and Constantine being consuls each of them the second time." Codex Justinianus, lib. 3, tit. 12, 3; translated in History of the Christian Church, Philip Schaff, D.D., (7-vol.ed.) Vol. III, p.380. New York, 1884.

"The primitive Christians had a great veneration for the Sabbath, and did spend the day in devotion and sermons. And it is not to be doubted but they derived this practice from the Apostles themselves, as appears by several Scriptures to that purpose." Dialogues on the Lord's Day. p.189. London: 1701. By Dr. T. H. Morer.(church of England divine)

Dr. A. Chr. Bang says regarding this Law :

"This Sunday law constituted no real favoritism to Christianity..... It is evident from all his statutory provisions that the Emperor during the time 313-323 with full consciousness has sought the realization of his religious aim: the amalgamation of heathenism and Christianity." Kirken og Romerstaten (The Church and the Roman State) p.256. Christiania, 1879

325 CE

Council of Nicea convened.

A Pagan Gentile named Constantine conquered Rome and made himself emperor. Constantine, although a Pagan himself, declared his brand of "Christianity" to be the Catholic (universal) religion, thus making apostate Christianity the enforced state religion of the Roman Empire. Constantine, who was an anti-Semite, called the council of Nicea in 325 C.E. to standardize Christianity.

Netzarim were excluded from the meeting. Jewish practices were banned. The "Day of the Sun" was substituted for the Biblical Sabbath. For the first time Gentile Christianity officially labeled the Nazarenes as apostates. From this time forward Nazarenes begin to be listed in the catalogs of apostate movements (the first of these to include the Nazarenes was Epiphanius’ "Panarion" around 370 C.E.).

The council introduced standing prayers at Sunday worship and during the "Paschal Season." The Paschal Season so-called was in fact the forced introduction and harmonization of Easter (Ishtar) as practiced in the West from Rome by the Attis system and by the Greeks in the East under the Adonis system and in Egypt under the Osiris/Isis system. This festival replaced the Torah based Pesach (Passover).

The Creed reconstructed from Constantinople itself, introduces the concept of Binitarianism essential to the formulation of the Trinity and introduces the aberration that Christ was the "only begotten of the Father" and hence removes the promise of the elect as begotten sons of God. Athanasius says (in Ad Afros) that there were 318 bishops present. Arius was summoned to the Council often, which began possibly on 20 May 325 CE under the Athanasian Hosius of Cordova. Constantine joined the Council on 14 June.

To get agreement Constantine marched in a cohort of Roman troops and arrested a number of bishops and exiled Arius, Theonas of Marmarica and Secundus of Ptolemais to Illyrica. Arius' writings were then burnt and all three were anathematised. The remainder agreed on the symbol of the Creed on 19 June. The Council ended on 25 August with a 'party' hosted by Constantine with presents to the bishops.

Three months after the Council, Eusebius of Nicomedia and Theognius of Nicea, who were forced to sign the Creed under duress, were exiled for retracting and Theodotus of Laodicea, who also signed under duress and retracted, recanted rather than join them.

328 CE

The goal of  the empire was world domination and the converts to the church in Rome were also imbued with this mentality. They courted an organization that wanted world domination and would tolerate no opposition. The Roman Church system adapted the pagan system of the sun cults, and among the Aryans to Christianity, resulting in no Bible believing person being able to follow both systems.

The Sabbath in Persia

335 CE            

The Sabbath-keeping churches in Persia underwent forty years of persecution under Shapur II, from 335-375 specifically, because they were Sabbath-keeping.

“They despise our sun-god. Did not Zoroaster, the sainted founder of our divine beliefs, institute Sunday one thousand years ago in honour of the sun and supplant the Sabbath of the Old Testament. Yet these Christians have divine services on Saturday” (O'Leary The Syriac Church and Fathers, pp. 83-84, re-quoted Truth Triumphant p. 170).

This persecution was mirrored in the west by the Council of Laodicea (c. 366). Hefele notes:

Canon 16 - The Gospels along with other New Testament books to be read on the Sabbath (cf. also canons 49 and 51, Bacchiocchi, fn. 15, p. 217).

Canon 29 - Christians must not Judaise by resting on the Sabbath, but must work on that day honoring rather the Lord's day by resting, if possible, as Christians. However if any shall be found judaising, let them be anathema for Christ (Mansi, II, pp. 569-570, see also Hefele Councils, Vol. 2, b. 6)

336 CE

The December 25 date and the institution of Christmas was selected by the church in Rome in the early fourth century. At this time, a church calendar was created and other holidays were also placed on solar dates: "It is cosmic symbolism...which inspired the Church leadership in Rome to elect the winter solstice, December 25, as the birthday of Christ, and the summer solstice as that of John the Baptist, supplemented by the equinoxes as their respective dates of conception. While they were aware that pagans called this day the 'birthday' of Sol Invictus, this did not concern them and it did not play any role in their choice of date for Christmas," according to modern scholar S.E. Hijmans. S.E. Hijmans, Sol, the sun in the art and religions of Rome, 2009, pp. 587–588. The Catholic church, however, has had a penchant for being the all encompassing religion. By applying Christian sounding names to pagan feasts and holy days, which are usually based on solstices and equinoxes,  the Roman Church drew pagans and Christians together under her "Mystery Babylon" umbrella. Or is it simply coincidence that Constantine worshipped Sol Invictus whose birthday was celebrated on December 25th all the way back to Babylon?

Dies Natalis Solis Invicti means "the birthday of the unconquered Sun." The use of the title Sol Invictus allowed several solar deities to be worshipped collectively, including Elah-Gabal, a Syrian sun god; Sol, the god of  Emperor Aurelian; and Mithras, a soldiers' god of Persian origin. "Mithraism", The Catholic Encyclopedia, 1913. And so, according to S.E. Hijmans above, we are suppose to believe that the Catholic Church set the birthday of “Jesus” to be on the same exact day as these other deities were worshipped.

Modern scholars have argued that the [Christmas] festival was placed on the date of the solstice because this was the day that the Sun reversed its southward retreat and proved itself to be "unconquered."Several early Christian writers connected the rebirth of the sun (the orb in space) to the birth of "Jesus". "Christmas", The Catholic Encyclopedia, 1913.

339 CE

Severe persecution of [Netzarim] in Persia, until 379; intermittent vicious persecution by Sassanian rulers until the 640 conquest by Islam.

345 CE

Persecution in East Syria and Persia drives 400 Nestorians with a bishop to settle in Malabar, India.

351 CE

The Unitarian (not to be confused with the present day Unitarian Churches) Goths publish the Bible in the Gothic Language.

354 CE

The earliest known reference to the date of the nativity as December 25 is found in the Chronography of 354, an illuminated manuscript compiled in Rome. This document was prepared privately for a Roman aristocrat. The reference in question states, "VIII kal. ian. natus Christus in Betleem Iudeæ". It is in a section copied from an earlier manuscript produced in 336. This document also contains the earliest known reference to the feast of  Sol Invictus. .

358 CE

Jewish calendar is changed from the Temple period model by a calculation system and delineated under Rabbi Hillel II ca. 368 CE (from input by Babylonian rabbis of ca 344 CE). The Waldensian and later the Transylvanian Sabbatarians did not follow the Jewish calendar but worked on the astronomical conjunction of the New Moon.

"The primitive Christians did keep the Sabbath of the Jews;...therefore the Christians, for a long time together, did keep their conventions upon the Sabbath, in which some portions of the law were read: and this continued till the time of the Laodicean council." "The Whole Works" of Jeremy Taylor, Vol. IX,p. 416 (R. Heber's Edition, Vol XII, p. 416).

379 CE

In the East, the feast of Christmas was introduced to Constantinople and to Antioch in about 380. The feast of Christmas disappeared after Gregory of Nazianzus resigned as bishop in 381, although it was reintroduced by John Chrysostom in about 400. "Christmas", The Catholic Encyclopedia, 1913. See John Chrysostom (the Golden Mouthed) on our "Bigotry" page.

380 CE            

The second century Montanists started a cult of worship of the Holy Spirit as they expected the Holy Spirit to come and take the place of the sons and announce a more perfect gospel. This view was repressed but led to the Fourth Council of Rome in 380 where Pope Damasus condemned whoever denied that the Holy Spirit should be adored like the Father and the Son (ibid., p. 711). Consequently the next year (381) at the Council of Constantinople, the Holy Spirit was added to the Godhead as the Trinity but not perhaps as successfully as the Cappadocians would have liked. This forms the next great distinction between the Netzari and Trinitarianism.

381 CE

Council of Constantinople sees the formulation of the doctrine of the trinity and the defining of the Holy Spirit as a third part of the Godhead, furthering the binitarian heresy emanated from the council of Nicaea. The full doctrinal position, however, was not agreed upon until the Council of Chalcedon in 451 CE. This council saw the exit of the thirty-six semi-Arians, Macedonians or Pneumatomachi. The council, after that exit, consisted of only 150 bishops. It was thus unrepresentative of much of Christianity and the Netzarim (who had been excluded since 325CE) at the time.

The Trinity was declared at Constantinople from the theology of the Cappadocians Basil, Gregory of Nyssa and Gregory of Nazianzus.

The destruction of the faith by the Greeks and Romans had begun to take effect.

385 CE            

Banishment of some Sabbatarians from Britain to Ireland after the execution of Priscillian.

Celtic Sabbath-keeping

Henry Charles Lea, the foremost authority on the Papal Inquisitions, records in the period of the commencement of persecution involving judicial capital punishment for heresy, that at the time of the execution of Priscillian with six of his followers in 385 CE, that "others were banished to a barbarous island beyond Britain." (A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, vol.1. New York: Harper & Brothers 1887, p.213.) Most likely this barberous island would appear to be Ireland. Britain and Ireland were favorite places for banishment and the marketing of slaves in those days. If indeed, many faithful "heretics" were banished to Ireland for centuries, it could not but have had a profound effect or that island, which became a great centre of light under Patrick (5th century), Columba (521-597), and Columbanus (c. 540-615) as the darkness of papal tyranny descended over the continent. Missionaries went forth from Ireland to Switzerland, Bohemia, and Kiev. Ireland was one of the most difficult areas for Rome to subjugate, and this explains why such unending efforts have been made for over 1200 years to completely subjugate this island of Ireland. (Taken from Cherith Chronicle, April-June 1998, pp. 46-47).

The Celtic Church, which occupied Ireland, Scotland and Britain, had the Syriac (Byzantine) scriptures instead of the Latin vulgate of Rome. The Celtic Church, with the Waldenses and the Eastern empire, kept the seventh-day Sabbath. When Queen Margaret fled to Scotland with her father Edward Atheling, a pretender to the English throne, she wrote "to her English cousins expressing astonishment at the religious practices of the Scots. Among the 'peculiarities' of the Scots was that 'they work on Sunday, but keep Saturday in a sabbatical manner.' To another correspondent she complained, 'They are accustomed also to neglect reverence for the Lord's days (Sundays); and thus to continue upon them as upon other days all the labours of earthly work.'

"The observance of the Saturday Sabbath by most Scots went hand in hand with their refusal to 'recognize the overlordship of the Pope in matters spiritual'. Despite the best efforts of King Nectan centuries earlier, Scottish Christianity was still of the 'Columban' or 'Celtic', not the 'Roman', variety.

"The most popular narrative history of Scotland--Scotland: A Concise History by P. Hume Brown (Langsyne) -- confirms that at Margaret's accession, 'the people worked on Sundays and observed Saturday as the Sabbath day'. Peter Berresford Ellis in Celtic lnheritance (Constable, 1992) page 45 writes: 'When Rome began to take a particular interest in the Celtic Church towards the end of the sixth century AD there were several differences between them... The Celtic Sabbath was celebrated on a Saturday.' Ellis' comment covers the Celtic Church in Wales, Ireland, Cornwall and Gaul, as well as Scotland. Romanism was, apparently, coming into Scotland but had no strength north of the Forth.

"This gave Queen Margaret her crusade (and her route to canonization): 'Margaret did all she could to make the Scottish clergy do and believe exactly what the Church of Rome commanded.' This involved the enforcement of Sunday-keeping, a policy continued by her son, King David I. Nevertheless, on the eve of the Reformation, there were still many communities in the Scottish Highland loyal to the seventh-day Sabbath, as opposed to 'the Papal Sunday'.

"Two books published in 1963-- to commemorate Columba's landing at lona in 563-- concerned themselves with the 'Celtic distinctives' and counted among them the observance of the seventh-day Sabbath. Dr. W.D. Simpson published The Historical St. Columba in Edinburgh. He confirms that Columba and his companions kept 'the day of the Sabbath' and in case there should be any doubt adds in a footnote 'Saturday, of course'... F.W. Fawcett was commissioned to write his Columba--Pilgrim for Christ by the Lord Bishop of Derry and Raphoe. His book was published in Londonderry and printed by the Derry Standard in connection with the Irish commemoration of Columba's mission. Fawcett outlines eight Celtic distinctives. Among these that the Celts had a married priesthood and that they observed the seventh day as the Sabbath." --David Marshall, The Celtic connection. England: Stanborough Press, 1994, pp.29, 30.

"The reason why Pope Gregory I had perceived the Celtic Church as such a major threat and why he and his successors expended such efforts in destroying the distinctive 'Irish customs' became massively evident.

"A.O. and M.O. Anderson, in the Introduction to their Adomnan's Life of Columba (Thomas Nelson 1961), shed light, not only on Columba's seventh-day Sabbath keeping practice, but on the gradual 'adjustment' of manuscripts by generations of Roman copyists, in an attempt to provide an impression that the Celtic saints held Sunday sacred.

"Adomnan's use of sabbatum for Saturday, the seventh day of the week, is clear indication from 'Columba's mouth' that 'Sabbath was not Sunday.' Sunday, the first day of the week is 'Lord's day.' Adomnan's attitude to Sunday is important, because he wrote at a time when there was controversy over the question whether the ritual of the biblical Sabbath was to be transferred to the Christians' Lord's-day.' (A.O. and M.O. Anderson (eds) Adomnan's Life of Columba (Thomas Nelson's Medieval Texts, 1961), pages 25-26.)

"The Old Testament required seventh-day Sabbath observance and, reason Adomnan's editors, since the New Testament nowhere repealed the fourth commandment, the seventh-day was observed by all early Christians. The evidence they adduce suggests that no actual confusion between Sunday and 'the Sabbath' occurred until the early sixth century, and then in the writings of the rather obscure Caesarius of ArIes. (ibid., page 26.)

The Roman 'movement' to supersede the Celtic Sabbath with Sunday 'culminated in the production of an (apocryphal) 'Letter of Jesus', or 'Letter of Lord's-day', alleged to have been found on the altar of Peter in Rome; and is said in the annals to have been brought to Ireland by a pilgrim (c. 886). Upon this basis laws were promulgated, imposing heavy penalties for those that violated on Sunday certain regulations derived from Jewish prohibitions for Sabbath... There is in fact no historical evidence that Ninian, or Patrick, or Columba, or any of their contemporaries in Ireland, kept Sunday as a Sabbath.' (ibid., p. 28).

An "early version of The Rule of Columba is reproduced in Columba—Pilgrim for Christ by [Clergyman] F.W. Fawcett, MA. [Clergyman] Fawcett is a Church of Ireland clergyman. He was commissioned by the Lord Bishop of Derry and Raphoe to produce this book as part of the celebrations in 1963 of the departure of Columba for lona in AD 563." --Marshall, The Celtic Connection, 46.

What They Said

Church of England

"The seventh day, the commandment says, is the Sabbath of the Lord thy God. No kind of arithmetic, no kind of almanac, can make seven equal one, nor the seventh mean the first, nor Saturday mean Sunday. ... The fact is that we are all Sabbath breakers, every one of us."

Rev. Geo. Hodges speaking to a C.O.E. congregation.

Netarim History Part Two